Rare Earth Hypothesis in the Quran, how the earth was created

The Spider:

In the name of Allah , the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

[29:43] And these examples We present to the people, but none will understand them except those of knowledge.  [29:44] Allah created the heavens and the earth in truth. Indeed in that is a sign for the believers.

Rare Earth Hypothesis in the Quran, how the earth was created, scientific miracles in the Quran

When an inventor submits a patent application to the patent office, he describes his invention and follows it with a list of claims or steps that lead him to that invention. Apparently, this seems to be the same approach that Allah; the Almighty, has followed to support his claim for the creation of the Heavens and the Earth. Indeed Ayahs 43 and 44 of the Spider state that Allah has presented us with examples [claims] for the creation of the Heaven & the Earth, and such claims can only be understood by those of knowledge. In other words, the Quran is telling us to see what science is saying about the formation of planet earth and link it to the claims that the Almighty has presented to us.

All references in this article are linked to the original sources such as Wikipedia, Quran Al Tafsser, APOD and other scientific references.

Quranic Ayahs (verses) are colored in green to distinguish them from our own writing, you will notice that within the translations are bracketed terms such as [Your] that were embedded by the translator as he believed that this is what is meant by the Ayahs as in the following example [67:4] Then return [your] vision twice again. [Your] vision will return to you humbled while it is fatigued.

The word “Ard” in Arabic أرض refers to the both the planet earth and the land (crust), in a similar fashion to the word Earth in English, however, there is a rule of thumb in the Quran that when Earth is paired with Heavens, then it refers to planet Earth, while if it is referenced alone then it refers to the land we walk on (crust), the only exception is when the Quran refers to the creation of the planet, as the planet was created in the first four days and the heavens were created in the next two days. as such you will find the term [land] in italic that refers to adjustments made by the writer.

In modern science, two hypotheses (theories) where laid down regarding the formation of the earth, those are:

Theory 1: 

Carl Sagan and Frank Drake, among others argued that Earth is a typical rocky planet in a typical planetary system, located in a non-exceptional region of a common barred-spiral galaxy. Given the principle of mediocrity (also called the Copernican principle), it is probable that the universe teems with complex life.

What supports this argument is a statistic based on the Kepler observations stating that the Milky-way contains around 40 billion earth-sized planets orbiting stars in their habitable zones, 11 billion of which orbit stars similar in size to our sun.

Theory 2:

The Rare Earth hypothesis argues that the emergence of complex multi-cellular life on Earth (and, subsequently, intelligence) required an improbable combination of astrophysical and geological events and circumstances. The hypothesis argues that complex extraterrestrial life is a very improbable phenomenon and likely to be extremely rare. The term “Rare Earth” originates from Rare Earth: Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe (2000), a book by Peter Ward, a geologist and paleontologist, and Donald E. Brownlee, an astronomer and astrobiologist, both faculty members at the University of Washington.

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While the first theory describes the ease and abundance of earth-like planets, the second puts certain requirements and a mathematical formula (equation) for the existence of a habitable planet, those are:

1- The right location in the right kind of galaxy

Rare Earth suggests that much of the known universe, including large parts of our galaxy, cannot support complex life; Ward and Brownlee refer to such regions as “dead zones”. Those parts of a galaxy where complex life is possible make up the galactic habitable zone. This zone is primarily a function of distance from the galactic center. As that distance increases 1- Star metallicity declines. Metals (which in astronomy means all elements other than hydrogen and helium) are necessary to the formation of terrestrial planets, 2- The X-ray and gamma ray radiation from the black hole at the galactic center, and from nearby neutron stars, becomes less intense. Radiation of this nature is considered dangerous to complex life, 3- Gravitational perturbation of planets and planetesimals by nearby stars becomes less likely as the density of stars decreases.

Item #1 rules out the outer reaches of a galaxy; #2 and #3 rule out galactic inner regions

Claims in the Quran:

In Sorat Fussilat [41] where Allah described the creation of the Heavens & Earth day-by-day, He described a unique event at the beginning of the fifth day as:

[41:11] Then He directed [leveled] Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, “Come, willingly or by compulsion.” They said, “We have come willingly.”

 { ثُمَّ ٱسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلأَرْضِ ٱئْتِيَا طَوْعاً أَوْ كَرْهاً قَالَتَآ أَتَيْنَا طَآئِعِينَ } فصِّلت 12

Allah, the Almighty has directed a part of the heaven and the earth that developed within it in four days to come to a particular location, and they said, “We have come willingly.”, what supports this argument is the meaning of the word “Sawa’ ” in the previous Ayah, which means that the first four days were equal in duration! Both Al Razi and Al Shaarawi reached the same conclusion.

As for the effect of the cosmic rays, Allah described  the phenomenon in a different fashion by stating that He raised Heaven and imposed the balance, the same way we do when we hide ourselves under the bed cover on a cold night, we raise the bed cover a bit to have some breathing space and at the same time keep away the unfriendly environment:

[55:7] And the heaven He raised and imposed the balance

{وَٱلسَّمَآءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ ٱلْمِيزَانَ} الرحمن 7

While in Sorat 21 – The Prophets, He described it as a canopy well-secured.

Quran Miracles, the canopy or dome as visualized by scientists
Quran Miracles, the canopy or dome as visualized by scientists

[21:32] and [that] We have set up the sky as a canopy well-secured? And yet, they stubbornly turn away from [all] the signs of this [creation].

{ وَجَعَلْنَا ٱلسَّمَآءَ سَقْفاً مَّحْفُوظاً وَهُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ } الانبياء 32

When prophet Mohammad was asked about the meaning of this Ayat, his reply was: “waves shielded from you” and described its shape as a dome. Keep in mind that X-rays and Gamma-rays are scientifically defined as high-energy waves.

If the star is not strong enough, the point of balance or Heliopause, will be close to the orbit of planets if not within, on the other hand, if the star’s orbit is too close to the galactic centre, the point of balance will also be pushed towards the orbit of the planets due to the intensity of the waves and might cause the shield to collapse.

2- Orbiting at the right distance from the right type of star

The hypothesis suggests that complex life requires water in the liquid state, and a central star’s planet must therefore be at an appropriate distance. This is the core of the notion of the habitable zone or Goldilocks Principle. The habitable zone forms a ring around the central star. If a planet orbits its sun too closely or too far away, the surface temperature is incompatible with water being liquid.

The habitable zone varies with the type and age of the central star. Small red dwarf stars conversely have small habitable zones wherein planets are in tidal lock—one side always faces the star and becomes very hot and the other always faces away and becomes very cold. Rare Earth proponents argue that life therefore cannot arise in such systems and that only central stars that range from F7 to K1 stars are hospitable.

Claims in the Quran:

The Quran places more emphasis on the challenge of bringing water into earth, several Ayahs in the Quran describe how the Almighty brought down water from the heaven to bring to life a dead planet, and as an essential component for life, the amount of water was in a measured amount:

[23:18] And We sent down water out of the heaven in measure, and We lodged it within the earth; and We are indeed able to take it away.

{ وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً بِقَدَرٍ فَأَسْكَنَّٰهُ فِي ٱلأَرْضِ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰ ذَهَابٍ بِهِ لَقَٰدِرُونَ } المؤمنون 18:

The Quran also state that life on earth is not possible without water:

[21:30] Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?

{ أَوَلَمْ يَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوۤاْ أَنَّ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقاً فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ ٱلْمَآءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ }  الأنياء 30

Tidal Lock

The twilight is the line separating night from day, if this line is made stationary, this would mean that earth is in tidal lock with the sun
The twilight is the line separating night from day, should this line be made stationary, this would mean that earth would enter into tidal lock with the sun

Again, Allah speaks in the following Ayah’s to those of knowledge in describing how the earth was in a tidal lock with the sun and then he freed it, this freeing action caused the creation of the night & day, this freeing action also caused the winds to flow globally that will later bring clouds. After freeing the earth from the tidal lock, Allah brought from the heaven water in a measured amount and settled it into the earth in order to bring to life a dead planet.

[25:45] Have you not considered your Lord – how He extends the shadow [twilight], and if He willed, He could have made it stationary? Then We made the sun for it an indication. [25:46] Then We hold it in hand for a brief grasp. [25:47] And it is He who has made the night for you as clothing and sleep [a means for] rest and has made the day a resurrection. [25:48] And it is He who sends the winds as good tidings before His mercy, and We send down from the sky pure water. [25:49] That We may bring to life thereby a dead land and give it as drink to those We created of numerous livestock and men.

{ أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ كَيْفَ مَدَّ ٱلظِّلَّ وَلَوْ شَآءَ لَجَعَلَهُ سَاكِناً ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَا ٱلشَّمْسَ عَلَيْهِ دَلِيلاً } * { ثُمَّ قَبَضْنَاهُ إِلَيْنَا قَبْضاً يَسِيراً } * { وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلَّيلَ لِبَاساً وَٱلنَّوْمَ سُبَاتاً وَجَعَلَ ٱلنَّهَارَ نُشُوراً} * { وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِيۤ أَرْسَلَ ٱلرِّيَاحَ بُشْرَاً بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً طَهُوراً } * {لِّنُحْيِـيَ بِهِ بَلْدَةً مَّيْتاً وَنُسْقِيَهُ مِمَّا خَلَقْنَآ أَنْعَاماً وَأَنَاسِيَّ كَثِيراً } الفرقان 45

3- The right arrangement of planets

Rare Earth argues that a planetary system capable of sustaining complex life must be structured more or less like the Solar System, with small and rocky inner planets and outer gas giants. In addition, the arrangement of the Solar System is not only rare but optimal as the large mass and gravitational attraction of the gas giants provide protection for the inner rocky planets from Small Solar System body impacts and asteroid bombardment.

Claims in the Quran

[37:6] Lo! We have adorned the lowest heaven with an ornament, the planets; [37:7] And as protection against every rebellious devil. Note: the Ayah clearly states the Arabic word “Kawkeb” which is an exact meaning for planets, some translations contain the word “stars” instead.

[41:12] And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.

[67:5] And, indeed, We have adorned the skies nearest to the earth with lights, and have made them the object of futile guesses for the evil ones [from among men]: and for them have We readied suffering through a blazing flame.

Comparison-Planets

From the above three verses, we can conclude that:

1- The lamps are the planets.

2- The near heaven contains the planets.

3- The planets are there as a protection.

4- The planets provide protection by becoming a piling place for the rebellious devils.

4- A continuously stable orbit

Rare Earth argues that a gas giant must not be too close to a body upon which life is developing, unless that body is one of its moons. Close placement of gas giant(s) could disrupt the orbit of a potential life-bearing planet, either directly or by drifting into the habitable zone. Newtonian dynamics can produce chaotic planetary orbits, especially in a system having large planets at high orbital eccentricity.[17]

 Claims in the Quran:

[81:15] No! I swear by the slinkers, [81:16] the runners, the sinkers

{ فَلا أُقْسِمُ بالخُنَّسِ الجَوَارِ الكُنَّسِ } التكوير – 16

The books of tafseer such as Al Tabari referred to the five known planets at the time, when a man walked to Ali and asked him, what are the slinkers, runners and sinkers, Ali replied, the planets. In other words the Almighty described the planets as slinkers, runners and sinkers!

In 2006, and after several debates and failed proposals, the  International Astronomical Union (IAU) reached a definition for a planet in our solar system which subsequently lead to the demotion of Pluto from a  “planet” to a “dwarf planet”. The definition states that a planet is a “A celestial body that (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (c) has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.”

Did you notice the similarity between the oath in the Quran and the 2006 definition of the IAU, here it is again:

2006 IAU Definition Quran
b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydro-static equilibrium (nearly round) shape The word Khonnas الخُنَّسِ in arabic dictionary means to contract and wrap around itself
a) is in orbit around the Sun The word Jawar الجَوَارِ refers to the action of mevement; as per the books of tafsir, horses move, the sun moves and the wind moves
c) has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit The word Konnas الكُنَّسِ means to sweep leftovers and dirt

 This description can only happen if the planets are in stable orbits.

5- A terrestrial planet of the right size

It is argued that life requires terrestrial planets like Earth and as gas giants lack such a surface, that complex life cannot arise there. A planet that is too small cannot hold much of an atmosphere. Hence the surface temperature becomes more variable and the average temperature drops. Substantial and long-lasting oceans become impossible. The core will cool faster, and plate tectonics will either not last as long as they would on a larger planet or may not occur at all. 

Claims in the Quran

The Quran did mention the significance of making iron lenient to prophet David; an indication of the first use of wrought iron or steel;  God also taught  him how to make ringed-iron jackets.

However, the Quran states that both water and Iron where sent down to earth, while we have explained the significance of water for life, iron; “hadeed in Arabic” or حديد; was honored by naming an entire Sora after it, the Ayat that refers to the particular event is:

[57:25] We have verily sent Our messengers with clear signs, and We revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance, so that mankind may uphold justice. And We sent down iron, wherein is great might, and [many] uses for mankind, and so that God may know those who help Him and His messengers through the Unseen. Assuredly God is Strong, Mighty.

{ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِٱلْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ ٱلْكِتَابَ وَٱلْمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ ٱلنَّاسُ بِٱلْقِسْطِ وَأَنزَلْنَا ٱلْحَدِيدَ فِيهِ بَأْسٌ شَدِيدٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ ٱللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ وَرُسُلَهُ بِٱلْغَيْبِ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ } الحديد 25

Planet earth is the most dense of all terrestrial planets, and this is due to the extra iron in its core, Iron is responsible for generating the electromagnetic field of earth, also known as the Van Allen radiation belt, which shields earth from the solar winds. Should the solar winds reach the upper layers of the atmosphere, it will ionize the water molecules in the upper atmosphere leaving earth with no water in a similar fashion to what happened to Mars and is happening to Venus. This is what the trailing part of the Ayat states:

[23:18] And We sent down water out of the heaven in measure, and We lodged it within the earth; and We are indeed able to take it away.

6- With plate tectonics

Rare Earth proponents argue that plate tectonics is essential for the emergence and sustenance of complex life. Ward & Brownlee assert that biodiversity, global temperature regulation, carbon cycle and the magnetic field of the Earth that make it habitable for complex terrestrial life all depend on plate tectonics.

Claims in the Quran

Splitting the earth into fissures

Allah linked the existence of our food to two primary events, the pouring of water and the splitting of the earth:

[80:24] So let man consider his food [80:25] that We pour down water plenteously; [80:26] then We split the earth [land] into fissures, [80:27] and [then] cause the grains to grow therein, [80:28] and vines and herbs, [80:29] and olives and date-palms, [80:30] and gardens of dense foliage, [80:31] and fruits and pastures, [80:32] as sustenance for you and your flocks. [80:33] So when the [deafening] Cry comes [80:34] the day when a man will flee from his [own] brother, [80:35] and his mother and his father, [80:36] and his wife and his sons, [80:37] every person that day will have a matter to preoccupy him. [80:38] On that day some faces will be shining, [80:39] laughing, joyous. [80:40] And some faces on that day will be covered with dust, [80:41] overcast with gloom. [80:42] Those are the disbelievers, the profligates.

{ فَلْيَنظُرِ ٱلإِنسَانُ إِلَىٰ طَعَامِهِ } * { أَنَّا صَبَبْنَا ٱلْمَآءَ صَبّاً } * { ثُمَّ شَقَقْنَا ٱلأَرْضَ شَقّاً } * {فَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا حَبّاً } * { وَعِنَباً وَقَضْباً } * { وَزَيْتُوناً وَنَخْلاً } *{ وَحَدَآئِقَ غُلْباً } عبس 24

While plate tectonics can be described in three distinct movement patterns namely; 1- Transform (slide) 2- convergent, and 3- divergent, the Quran described all three of them!

Set upon the land, reducing it from its borders
Plate Tectonics

According to Prophet Mohammad, peace be upon him, during earth’s creation, earth was totally submerged by water until a sea-mount reached the surface where Mecca is, from which the Almighty spread the land and later split it. The Quran described the first type of plates tectonics as neighbouring plots:

In sorat Al-Raad الرعد, the Almighty said: [13:3] And it is He who spread the earth [land] and placed therein firmly set mountains and rivers; and from all of the fruits He made therein two mates; He causes the night to cover the day. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought  [13:4] And within the land are neighboring plots and gardens of grapevines and crops and palm trees, [growing] several from a root or otherwise, watered with one water; but We make some of them exceed others in [quality of] fruit. Indeed in that are signs for a people who reason.

{وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِي مَدَّ ٱلأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِىَ وَأَنْهَاراً وَمِن كُلِّ ٱلثَّمَرَاتِ جَعَلَ فِيهَا زَوْجَيْنِ ٱثْنَيْنِ يُغْشِى ٱلَّيلَ ٱلنَّهَارَ إِنَّ فِي ذٰلِكَ لآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ}  {وَفِي ٱلأَرْضِ قِطَعٌ مُّتَجَاوِرَاتٌ وَجَنَّاتٌ مِّنْ أَعْنَابٍ وَزَرْعٌ وَنَخِيلٌ صِنْوَانٌ وَغَيْرُ صِنْوَانٍ  يُسْقَىٰ بِمَآءٍ وَاحِدٍ وَنُفَضِّلُ بَعْضَهَا عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فِي ٱلأُكُلِ إِنَّ فِي ذٰلِكَ لآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَالرعد 3

The Quran also described the other two interrelated movements:

[13:41] Have they not seen that We set upon the land, reducing it from its borders? And Allah decides; there is no adjuster of His decision. And He is swift in account.

{أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا نَأْتِي ٱلأَرْضَ نَنقُصُهَا مِنْ أَطْرَافِهَاوَٱللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ لاَ مُعَقِّبَ لِحُكْمِهِ وَهُوَ سَرِيعُ ٱلْحِسَابِ} الرعد 41

And again, in sorat “The Prophets” الأنبياء, the Almighty said [21:44] But, [on the contrary], We have provided good things for these [disbelievers] and their fathers until life was prolonged for them. Then do they not see that We set upon the land, reducing it from its borders? So is it they who will overcome?

{بَلْ مَتَّعْنَا هَـٰؤُلاۤءِ وَآبَآءَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ طَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلْعُمُرُأَفَلاَ يَرَوْنَ أَنَّا نَأْتِي ٱلأَرْضَ نَنقُصُهَا مِنْ أَطْرَافِهَآ أَفَهُمُ ٱلْغَالِبُونَ}  الأنبياء 41

So important plate tectonics are, that Allah, made a bold statement by described the entire earth crust as of fissures[86:12] and [by] the earth [land] of fissures, [86:13] assuredly it is a decisive word, [86:14] and it is not a jest.

{ وَٱلأَرْضِ ذَاتِ ٱلصَّدْعِ } * { إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلٌ فَصْلٌ } * { وَمَا هوَ بِٱلْهَزْلِ } الطارق 12

The above verses and in a few words, describe the entire theory of plate tectonics in precise details, most of which are at 7,000 meters below sea level in the middle of the Atlantic ocean (MAR) and at 11,000 meters below sea level in the Pacific Ocean at the Mariana Trench and the East Pacific.

7- Large Moon

The Moon is unusual because the other rocky planets in the Solar System either have no satellites (Mercury and Venus), or have tiny satellites that are probably captured asteroids (Mars).

The giant impact theory (birth of the moon) hypothesizes that the Moon resulted from the impact of a Mars-sized body, Theia, with the very young Earth. This giant impact also gave the Earth its axial tilt and velocity of rotation. Rapid rotation reduces the daily variation in temperature and makes photosynthesis viable. The Rare Earth hypothesis further argues that the axial tilt cannot be too large or too small (relative to the orbital plane). A planet with a large tilt will experience extreme seasonal variations in climate, unfriendly to complex life. A planet with little or no tilt will lack the stimulus to evolution that climate variation provides. In this view, the Earth’s tilt is “just right”. The gravity of a large satellite also stabilizes the planet’s tilt; without this effect the variation in tilt would be chaotic, probably making complex life forms on land impossible

A large satellite also increases the likelihood of plate tectonics through the effect of tidal forces on the planet’s crust. The impact that formed the Moon may also have initiated plate tectonics, without which the continental crust would cover the entire planet, leaving no room for oceanic crust. It is possible that the large scale mantle convection needed to drive plate tectonics could not have emerged in the absence of crustal inhomogeneity.

If a giant impact is the only way for a rocky inner planet to acquire a large satellite, any planet in the circumstellar habitable zone will need to form as a double planet in order that there be an impacting object sufficiently massive to give rise in due course to a large satellite. An impacting object of this nature is not necessarily improbable.

Claims in the Quran:

The moon was mentioned 27 times in the Quran, 7 of which where paired along with the sun as being subjected for the benefits of God’s creations

[13:2] God is He who raised up the heavens without pillars you can see, then He sat Himself upon the Throne. He subjected the sun and the moon, each one running to a term stated. He directs the affair; He distinguishes the signs; haply you will have faith in the encounter with your Lord.

[14:33] and He subjected to you the sun and moon constant upon their courses, and He subjected to you the night and day,

[16:12] And He subjected to you the night and day, and the sun and moon; and the stars are subjected by His command. Surely in that are signs for a people who understand.

[29:61] If thou askest them, ’Who created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon?’ they will say, ’God.’ How then are they perverted?

[31:29] Do you not see that Allah causes the night to enter the day and causes the day to enter the night and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term, and that Allah , with whatever you do, is Acquainted?

[35:13] He causes the night to enter the day, and He causes the day to enter the night and has subjected the sun and the moon – each running [its course] for a specified term. That is Allah , your Lord; to Him belongs sovereignty. And those whom you invoke other than Him do not possess [as much as] the membrane of a date seed.

[39:5] He created the heavens and earth in truth. He wraps the night over the day and wraps the day over the night and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term. Unquestionably, He is the Exalted in Might, the Perpetual Forgiver.

The pairing of the moon with the sun gives them equal value in terms of benefit to God’s creation, if life is not possible without the sun, then the Quran is saying that life is not possible without the moon.

8- An evolutionary trigger for complex

Regardless of whether planets with similar physical attributes to the Earth are rare or not, some argue that life usually remains simple bacteria. Biochemist Nick Lane argues that simple cells (prokaryotes) emerged soon after Earth’s formation, but almost half the planet’s life had passed before they evolved into complex ones (eukaryotes) and because all complex life has a common origin, this event can only have happened once.

Prophet Mohammad peace be upon him said: “Allah created the soil on Saturday, and created the mountains on Sunday, and created the trees on Monday, and created the “Makrooh” on Tuesday, and created light on Wednesday, and dispersed every moving creature on Thursday and created Adam; the last creation, in the last hour on Friday after Asr prayer time and before sunset.”

قال رسول الله ” خَلَقَ اللَّهُ التُّرْبَةَ يَوْمَ السَّبْتِ ، وَخَلَقَ الْجِبَالَ يَوْمَ الأَحَدِ ، وَخَلَقَ الشَّجَرَ يَوْمَ الاثْنَيْنِ ، وَخَلَقَ الْمَكْرُوهَ يَوْمَ الثُّلاثَاءَ ، وَخَلَقَ النُّورَ يَوْمَ الأَرْبِعَاءِ ، وَبَثَّ فِيهَا الدَّوَابَّ يَوْمَ الْخَمِيسِ ، وَخَلَقَ آدَمَ بَعْدَ صَلاةِ الْعَصْرِ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ آخِرَ الْخَلْقِ فِي آخِرِ سَاعَاتٍ مِنْ سَاعَاتِ الْجُمُعَةِ فِيمَا بَيْنَ الْعَصْرِ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ “

The prophet clearly states that “the light” was created during the fifth day, making it 5/7 of the assumed age of earth of 4.7 billion years or almost one billion years ago, making it closer to the date of the Cambrian explosion 800-542 million years ago. Scientifically, this means that the sun took 5/7 of its assumed life to reach  the  main sequence stage, as such, my speculation is that the sun may have evolved from a  brown dwarf into a G-class star! and/or some object like a hot Jupiter merged with the sun causing it to reach critical mass for nuclear fusion.  What supports this argument is the discovery of planetary nebula where measurements show that NGC 6153 contains large amounts of neon, argon, oxygen, carbon and chlorine — up to three times more than can be found in the solar system. Since such a star could not have produced such elements within, it must have accumulated them from the original cloud.

The science of genetics and the theory of evolution will fail if there were no pairs, and no pairing process; (mating), thus, a key creation was the pairs, [53:45That He did create in pairs,- male and female,. the books of Tafseer interpret it as “He invented the process of the pairing; male and female and made them pairs” وأنه ابتدع إنشاء الزوجين الذكر والأنثى، وجعلهما زوجين, this was capped by [36:36Exalted is He who created all pairs – from what the earth grows and from themselves and from that which they do not know.

9- The right time in evolution

800px-Timeline_evolution_of_life.svgThe evolution to complex organs took around 800 million years (Cambrian explosion). Civilizations on Earth have existed for ~10,000 years and radio communication with space is not older than 80 years. Relative to the age of our solar system (~4.57 Ga) this is a tiny age span, an age span where extreme climatic variations, super volcanoes or large meteorite impacts were absent. These events would severely harm intelligent life, as well as life in general.

Claims in the Quran:

This argument takes us back to point 8 that the sun did not shine (as we know it) during the first few 100 million years but rather after 5/7 of earth’s assumed life has passed. At the same time, Ayah’s 9 through 12 of Surat Fussilat also state the the planet earth, as a body, was not ready to host advanced life forms until 4 days have passed, this is because earth was going through major changes and refinements. Those Ayah’s tell us that earth took 2 days to form,  which included bringing of extra iron to earth as part of the formation of the moon (giant impact), which also freed earth from the tidal lock. The two days also included the pouring of water in measured amounts. During the first four days, the first sea-mount was formed, followed by the spreading of the land above water, the splitting of the land into fissures, the creation of the mountain chains as a result of the continental collision after the first split (creation of Pangaea) and the second split forming the current continents.

[41:9] Say, “Do you indeed disbelieve in He who created the earth in two days and attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds.” [41:10] And He placed on the earth firmly set mountains over its surface, and He blessed it and determined therein its sustenance in four days without distinction – for [the information] of those who ask. [41:11] Then He directed [leveled] Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, “Come willingly or by compulsion.” They said, “We have come willingly.” [41:12] And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.

{ قُلْ أَإِنَّكُمْ لَتَكْفُرُونَ بِٱلَّذِي خَلَقَ ٱلأَرْضَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَتَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ أَندَاداً ذَلِكَ رَبُّ ٱلْعَالَمِينَ } * { وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ مِن فَوْقِهَا وَبَارَكَ فِيهَا وَقَدَّرَ فِيهَآ أَقْوَاتَهَا فِيۤ أَرْبَعَةِ أَيَّامٍ سَوَآءً لِّلسَّآئِلِينَ } * { ثُمَّ ٱسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلأَرْضِ ٱئْتِيَا طَوْعاً أَوْ كَرْهاً قَالَتَآ أَتَيْنَا طَآئِعِينَ } * { فَقَضَٰهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَٰوَٰتٍ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَأَوْحَىٰ فِي كُلِّ سَمَآءٍ أَمْرَهَا وَزَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنْيَا بِمَصَٰبِيحَ وَحِفْظاً ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ ٱلْعَزِيزِ ٱلْعَلِيمِ } فصلت 10

[29:20] Say, [O Muhammad], “Travel through the land and observe how He began creation. Then Allah will produce the final creation. Indeed Allah , over all things, is competent.”

{ قُلْ سِيرُواْ فِي ٱلأَرْضِ فَٱنظُرُواْ كَيْفَ بَدَأَ ٱلْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ ٱللَّهُ يُنشِىءُ ٱلنَّشْأَةَ ٱلآخِرَةَ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌالعنكبوت 20

10- Mountain Chains

Ward & Brownlee contend that the lack of mountain chains elsewhere in the Solar System is direct evidence that Earth is the only body with plate tectonics and as such the only body capable of supporting life. However, they did not indicate any benefit.

Claims in the Quran

An illustration of the effect of mountains on the earth's crust and mantle, the illustration clearly shows the crustal roots that have a stabilizing effect on the crust
Termed in the Quran as soaring-high anchors, an illustration of the effect of mountains on the earth’s crust and mantle, the illustration shows the crustal roots that have a stabilizing effect on the earth crust

Mountains were referenced 33 times in the Quran, but they were also nicknamed “Anchors” and referenced 9 times, anchors refer to their effect on the earth crust as they prevent the crust from shifting, which will lead to inconsistent motion, the Quran described them as soaring-high anchors.

[16:15And He has cast into the earth [land] firmly set mountains, lest it shift with you, and [made] rivers and roads, that you may be guided,

{ وَأَلْقَىٰ فِي ٱلأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَأَنْهَاراً وَسُبُلاً لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ } النحل 15

[77:27And We placed therein lofty [soaring high], firmly set mountains and have given you to drink sweet [fresh] water.

{ وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ شَامِخَاتٍ وَأَسْقَيْنَاكُم مَّآءً فُرَاتاً } المرسلات 27

Mountain chains are also a source for sustainable fresh water, almost all rivers on earth except for the equatorial ones, originate from the mountain chains, and that is where ancient civilizations rose!

We live in a highly sensitive planet, the average temperature in non-equatorial areas varies by 30+ degrees between the summer and winter, this is due to the 23 degree tilt in earth’s rotation axis, so imagine the effect on life if the crust shifts randomly and the polar regions become equatorial!

One final note regarding the often confused and misunderstood term “Heaven and Earth”, the seven heavens were created during the fifth and sixth days: [41:12] And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. It seems that the seven heavens make-up a superstructure around earth that is invisible to the human eye, however, Allah guided us as to how to detect those heavens in the following Ayahs in The Sovereignty: [67:3] [And] who created seven heavens in layers. You do not see in the creation of the Most Merciful any inconsistency. So return [your] vision [to the sky]; do you see any breaks? [67:4] Then return [your] vision twice again. [Your] vision will return to you humbled while it is fatigued. The bracketed terms such as [Your] were added by the translator as he believed that this is what is meant by the Ayahs, however, the original scripture in Arabic does not contain them, simply try to read the ayahs without the bracketed terms and they will become much clearer. My own interpretation is that Allah is instructing us to “reflect” the visible light from beyond the seven heavens and we should be able to detect the boundaries of such heavens, returning the light once again and the “vision will return to you humbled while it is fatigued!”.

This leaves us with the question of how high are they? Prophet Mohammad asked his followers: “Do you know the distance between the heavens and the Earth, they replied: Allah and His Messenger know better, He said: between earth and the [first] heaven is the travel distance of 500 years, and from each heaven to the next is travel distance of 500 years and the thickness of each heaven is travel distance of 500 years)”.

(هل تدرون كم بين السماء والأرض؟ قال قلنا الله ورسوله أعلم, قال: بينهما مسيرة خمسمائة سنة، ومن كل سماء إلى سماء مسيرة خمسمائة سنة، وكثف كل سماء مسيرة خمسمائة سنة)

This is confirmed in sorat Noah which indicates that the moon (400,000 km) is within the seven heavens while the sun (150 million km) is not: [71:15] Do you not consider how Allah has created seven heavens in layers [71:16] And made the moon therein a [reflected] light and made the sun a burning lamp. 

Since the daily caravan travel distance is roughly 40 km, then the travel distance per year is 365 days / year * 40 km / day = 14,600 km/year, thus, the travel distance of 500 years = 14,600 km/year * 500 years =  7,300,000 km. This makes the distance to the end of the seventh heaven 7 * 7,300,000 = 51,100,000 km. By pointing a laser beam from earth or earth’s orbit to a spacecraft near the Mars orbit (minimum 78 million km from earth) and reflecting that beam back should accomplish part one of the experiment. Returning that beam again and refracting it back should give us some unexpected results! probably a change in the frequency and amplitude of the beam! (humbled while it is fatigued).

So, did Allah create a similar creation to the heavens and earth? Sounds like he did: [36:81“Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth able to create the like thereof?” – Yea, indeed! for He is the Creator Supreme, of skill and knowledge [infinite]!

To be Continued … This article is still in progress!

By: Husein Kattab

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